Reproductive System DiseasesThe patho-physiology is Benign prostatic hypertrophy is a very common disorder in older men, varying from mild to severe forms. Although called hypertrophy, the change is actually hyperplasia of the prostatic tissue with formation of nodules surrounding the urethra; these changes lead to compression of the urethra and variable degrees of urinary obstruction.

This change is actually hyperplasia of prostate. This hyperplasia results in imbalance between oestrogen and testosterone from the hormonal changes associated with ageing. No connection between Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy (BPH) and prostate cancer (prostatic carcinoma) – nothing has been identified.

Rectal examination reveals an enlarged gland. Incomplete emptying of bladder (because of the obstruction) leads to infections. Continued obstruction leads to: distended bladder; dilated ureters; renal damage and hydronephrosis. If significant obstruction and urinary retention develop in the patient, surgical intervention is required.

The sign and symptoms is the initial signs indicate obstruction of urinary flow. Hesitancy, dribbling, decreased force of urine stream are direct results of the narrowed urethra. Incomplete bladder emptying leads to frequency, nocturia, recurrent Urinary Tract Infection and Kidney damage.